Jackson’s Burn Wound Model provides a model for understanding the pathophysiology of a burn wound. The zone of coagulation nearest the heat source is the primary injury. This zone has irreversible tissue necrosis at the centre of the burn due to exposure to heat, chemicals or electricity. The extent of this injury is dependent on the temperature (or concentration) and the duration of exposure (13).
Surrounding the central zone of necrosis is a zone of ischemia in which there is a reduction in the dermal circulation. This is damaged but potientially viable tissue. This ischemic zone may progress to full necrosis unless the ischemia is reversed. If the ischemia is not relieved, for example when resuscitation and wound care are suboptimal, then persisting ischaemia will worsen, and the burn depth will increase.
At the periphery of the burn is a third zone of hyperaemia characterised by a reversible increase in blood flow and inflammation.